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Chess Stoyko Exercises, Melatih Kalkulasi Dengan Memecahkan Problem Catur Babak Tengah, SBKC (12)

Dari SBKC (Seri Belajar Komputer Catur, atau Belajar Catur Dengan Bantuan Komputer Yang Efektif Dan Efisien) Seri Ke-12 ini, saya akan postingkan melatih kalkulasi dengan metode "STOYKO EXERCISES". Karena begitu pentingnya kalkulasi bagi pecatur, kita akan melatih kalkulasi ini dengan berbagai cara. Tinggal dipilih mana yang paling cocok dan sesuai dengan level kita. Atau bisa juga kalo waktunya banyak, bisa dicoba berlatih kalkulasi dengan semua metode. Posting seri sebelumnya adalah dengan melatih kalkulasi dengan menggunakan software Fritz (mulai Fritz9).

Latihan kalkulasi ini diciptakan oleh MF Steve Stoyko yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan kalkulasi (board vision atau KETELITIAN PAPAN, statis dan dinamis), memecahkan masalah utamanya di babak tengah. Dengan latihan ini diharapkan kita MAMPU MENGETAHUI APA SAJA YANG AKAN TERJADI DI ATAS PAPAN dan MAMPU MENJELAJAHI SEMUA KEMUNGKINAN LANGKAH YANG ADA serta MEMBIASAKAN DIRI UNTUK MEMECAHKAN MASALAH SULIT/KRITIS DI ATAS PAPAN CATUR SECARA NYATA. Latihan ini lebih direkomendasikan untuk pecatur tingkat lanjut/master!. Kurang disarankan untuk pecatur pemula, mengingat tingkat kesulitan yang lumayan tinggi. MF Steve Stoyko mengklaim bahwa kalo latihan ini dilakukan secara rutin akan dapat menambah rating kita sekitar 100 poin! (saya juga pengen!).


Intisari dari latihan STOYKO EXERCISES ini adalah sebagai berikut :

1.Ambil kertas dan alat tulis. Setting jam catur ke waktu tertentu, misalnya 45 menit (waktu hendaknya makin lama makin dikurangi untuk meningkatkan kecepatan berpikir).

2.Ambil fragmen (posisi) babak tengah yang lumayan kompleks. Usahakan jangan melihat jawabannya ya. Kalo lihat khan sama juga boong!

3.Tata buah catur sesuai dengan fragmen yang dipilih.

4.Mulai melakukan analisa dan kalkulasi posisi di depan anda. Mulai fokus dan KONSENTRASI. Lakukan kalkulasi pelan-pelan dan seteliti mungkin.

5.Tulis analisa (SEMUA KEMUNGKINAN LANGKAH), beserta semua varian dan sub varian (saya biasa menyebut ke teman-teman sub varian ini dengan kata 'JENGGOT') di atas kertas yang sudah disediakan. Semakin banyak 'jenggotnya' tentu semakin baik. Berikan komentar seperlunya misalnya "Putih unggul karena punya sepasang gajah dan posisi pusat terbuka". Lebih baik lagi kalo anda beri nilai dan TANDA apakah posisi unggul, imbang, atau kalah, dan seterusnya. Dan usahakan untuk TIDAK MENYENTUH PAPAN/BUAH (alias buah tidak boleh diotak-atik) selama mengkalkulasi.

6.Setelah waktunya habis (bendera jam jatuh), cocokkan analisa di kertas anda dengan jawabannya. Atau kalo tidak ada jawabannya, posisinya bisa dianalisa dengan komputer/engine terlebih dahulu. Atau kalo tidak ada komputer, ya tanyakan ke master catur yang pandai.

7.Semakin tulisan di kertas anda mendekati jawaban yang ada, nilai anda semakin baik. Latih terus dan tingkatkan skor anda. Kalo sudah baik, kurangi waktunya.

8.Selesai. Latih 1 posisi/hari atau porsinya terserah anda (bisa juga ditanyakan ke instruktur catur anda). Semoga rating anda bisa tambah 100 poin seperti yang dikatakan pencipta metode ini, MF Steve Stoyko.

Berikut cuplikan Stoyko Exercises dari pelatih catur terkenal (dan saya kagumi) Dan Heisman (Excuse me sir, I quote your page, please), di situsnya :
http://home.comcast.net/~danheisman/Articles/Exercises.html

This exercise was suggested to me by FM Steve Stoyko, and I strongly suggest it for intermediate players who wish to improve their visualization and evaluation capabilities.

First the reader should find a rich middlegame position. Suggestions would be go go to most any Kasparov, Shirov, or Speelman game, or perhaps from the books Genius in Chess or How to Think in Chess. Take out a paper and pencil.

Now the idea is to write everything you can possibly visualize from the position, like you were playing the game without a clock and you had to see everything before you move. Write down every line that you look at, along with that line's evaluation. To be done correctly this should fill up 2+ sheets of paper and take 45 minutes up to 2 hours or so for just this one position; the exercise is only done on one position at a time (that is enough!). You should analyze that position without moving the pieces. Each line you analyze should end with an evaluation (such as "White is a little better or +/= or .3 pawns or however you wish to state it). As with any move, the evaluation of your best line would make that your Principal Variation (PV) and among all the lines that one should be noted as such.

When you are done, either take the analysis to a good instructor, player, or software program. Look at each line to see how well you visualized the position (any retained image problems, etc.?), and also compare your logic (was that move really forced?) and all your evaluations, as well as your PV.

Steve claimed that each time he did this exercise he gained about 100 rating points!

A summary of this exercise I posted for Chessville:

1) Find a fairly complicated position

2) Get out a pen/pencil and paper

3) You have unlimited time

4) Write down every (pertinent) line for as deep as you can see, making sure to include an evaluation at the end of the line. This will likely include dozens of lines and several first ply candidate moves. Evaluations can be any type you like:

a) Computer (in pawns, like +.3)
b) MCO/Informant (=, +/=, etc.)
c) English ("White is a little better")

5) At the end state which move you would play and it's "best play for both sides" line becomes the PV

6) When you are done, go over each line and its evaluation with a strong player and/or a computer. Look for:

a) Lines/moves you should have analyzed but missed
b) Any errors in visualization (retained images, etc.)
c) Any lines where you stopped analyzing too soon, thus causing a big error in evaluation (quiescence errors)
d) Any large errors in evaluation of any line
e) Whether the above caused you to chose the wrong move
etc.

Chessville question about this exercise: I don't understand your point: "The key is the amateur's evaluation of every line... you will have your instructor (or Fritz or whatever) compare your evaluation of every line, resulting in a really good evaluation test". How is it a "really good evaluation test" to analyze a single position from a Kasparov or Shirov type game for a hour or so?

I can see how it's a good calculation/visualisation exercise - totally agreed. I've done it in the past for this benefit and I'd do it again. But I'm just not understanding the evaluation benefit?!

Answer: Your question is very good (I guess if you misunderstand that purpose of the exercise, that would help explain my observation as to why so many players are missing out on a valuable resource!).

Most players are very poor at even-material evaluation. Therefore they make bad moves because, assuming they evaluate potential outcomes of various candidate moves, they choose a move that is not best because they erroneously think the resultant position(s) from their chosen move are better.

The second (non-analysis) aspect of the Stoyko exercise is to evaluate EVERY line that you examine in the tree - that could be dozens or even possibly hundreds of lines for one position since the Stoyko position has unlimited time. By comparing your evaluations of these hundreds of lines with your instructors' evaluation, you learn to improve one of the most critical skills you have - what is good and what is bad and why and how much. It also helps you identify the all-too-common quiescence errors where weak players stop their line too soon and therefore mis-evaluate because they did not look to see what might happen with further checks, captures, and threats.

This capability is so important and its failure so critical that you would think everyone would want to work on it, especially since the amount of work is an hour or two, plus additional time for going over it with someone (or even at worst via computer evaluation).

Here are two common mistakes when doing your first Stoyko exercise:

1.A player takes a position that was far too balanced and almost still in book (too early in the game). Instead, you want to find “messy” positions which are unclear, usually because one side has sacrificed material for some other advantage. Also, when the line is balanced, then most of the evaluations are fairly balanced, and that is not good practice for evaluation. You can find these in the middle of lots of Shirov games, Kasparov games, Topalov games, or in books like Levitt’s Genius in Chess, or Przewoznik, Chapter 9 of Eingorn's Decision Making at the Chessboard, and Soszynski’s How to Think in Chess, likely even in some of your own games.

2.A player does not nearly enough analysis (which goes along with number 1, since a much more “regular” position has far fewer lines worth investigating). Usually a Stoyko position is unclear and you would have dozens of lines and hundreds of nodes in your analysis. On a sheet of paper, handwritten, this would take up around 3-4 sides of paper. Remember, since there is no time limit, you are trying to see as far as is pertinent in every possible line, so it can get fairly deep (which is why this exercise is good for testing your visualization).

Buku yang berisi banyak materi (babak tengah) untuk latihan Stoyko ini antara lain : Decision-Making at the Chessboard.

Materi lain bisa didapatkan misalnya dari fragmen babak tengah di buku catur terkenal seri INFORMATOR terbitan SAHOVSKI, Yugoslavia yang memiliki kesulitan tingkat tinggi.

Kita coba ya... latihan STOYKO ini. Sapa tahu bisa meningkatkan kemampuan KALKULASI catur kita. Ujungnya-ujungnya akan menaikkan level kita. Semoga!

GENS UNA SUMUS.

 
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